Working Principle of Light Cube_ Control Mode of 8 * 8 * 8 Light Cube LED Based on 74hc573

The light cube is built by several diode LED lamps in the form of cubes, 4 * 4 * 4, 8 * 8 * 8, 16 * 16 * 16 or more, and is driven by single chip microcomputer, latch, decoder and other electrical components to form a three-dimensional animation effect. Among them, 8 * 8 * 8 light cube is the most common.

For example, 8 * 8 * 8 light cube is built and welded by 512 light-emitting diodes in the form of cube. There are two schemes: layer common cathode beam common anode and layer common anode beam common cathode. Each layer has 8 * 8 light-emitting diodes, a total of 8 layers. The MCU program is compiled with C language to realize the custom animation effect.

Working principle of Light Cube

In short, the light cube uses a single chip microcomputer to control the lighting and extinguishing of many regularly arranged LEDs.

1. Control mode of single LED

First understand the control mode of a single LED. The positive pole can be connected to the power supply, and the negative pole can be connected to an IO port of the single chip microcomputer through a current limiting resistor. When the IO port output is low, the LED is on, otherwise, the LED is off.

If we want to drive the LED at any position, we only need to connect the column line used by the LED at that position to ground and the row line to V.

Friends who have studied single chip microcomputer know how the nixie tube is lit. There are bit selection and segment selection. All nixie tubes can work normally through scanning, so as to display the numbers we want.

The same is true for the dot matrix. Although it is an 8 * 8 dot matrix, if we make the whole display patterns at will, it also needs to be realized by scanning. Otherwise, it cannot be accurately controlled.

The so-called scanning means that we can only light up one row or row at a time. You can only click this point every time. Eight times is a cycle. Click once from left to right. Then cycle, and we see the complete image.

2. Control mode of each layer of LED

According to the control mode of single LED, each LED needs to occupy an IO port of MCU, and 100 IO ports are required to control 100 LEDs. So, is there a way to control more LEDs with fewer IO ports? The answer is yes. This method is to scan the driving circuit.

2 * 2 scanning driving circuit

Therefore, in general, although each layer of the light cube has 64 lamps, we will have 64 wires connected to these lamps respectively, so as to control 64 lamps at one time. Generally, there are few single chip microcomputer pins, and 74hc573, 74HC595 and other chips will be used for expansion.

3. Control mode of 8 * 8 * 8 Light Cube LED (based on 74hc573)

The data is input into each 74hc573 in parallel, and then the controller stores these data, so as to realize the simultaneous lighting of 64 lights in one layer. The following describes the process of hardware execution required for the display of a fixed screen.

1) The data of 64 points in the first layer is transmitted to 8 74hc573, and the control chip of ULN2803 layer is controlled to turn on the switch of the first layer to turn on the first layer. At this time, other layers are off.

2) Waiting time t.

3) Turn off the first layer, start transmitting the data of the second layer to 74hc573, latch, turn on the main control switch of the second layer, and turn on the second layer.

4) Waiting time t.

。。。

Turn off the first layer, transfer the data of the eighth layer to all 74hc573, latch, turn on the master switch of the eighth layer, and turn on the eighth layer.

Go back to the first step and cycle on..

In this way, the display of a periodic picture is realized. Due to the temporary visual characteristics of human eyes, as long as the refresh is fast enough, we can see that the light cube is bright as a whole. It has achieved the effect we want. In order to stabilize the picture, the upper interval lighting t should be consistent, otherwise uneven brightness will occur.

When actually using the above circuit, it is best to add a current limiting resistor to the 64 pins of the 74hc573 output respectively, which can play a good role in diode protection, overall power consumption limitation and brightness adjustment.

Careful analysis of the above control process can find a way to further save the number of IO ports.

To 16 × Taking the whole column of 16 as an example, if only one column is lit at a time in the limited 16 columns, it can be replaced by four IO lines and a 4 16 decoder. In this way, there are only 20 IO ports in 16 4. The row still retains 16, because in this way, multiple LEDs in column 1 can be controlled to be on at the same time. Speed up scanning.

Circuit diagram of 8 * 8 * 8 optical cube based on 74hc573

Working Principle of Light Cube_ Control Mode of 8 * 8 * 8 Light Cube LED Based on 74hc573 1

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