The Fast Charging Standard Should Be Unified. What Are the Common Schemes in the Market?

Smart phone has become a common necessity in life. Shopping, making friends and games are inseparable from it. However, with the development of large screen and lightweight mobile phone, the battery power of mobile phone is becoming more and more stretched, and the popularization of fast charging technology has become an inevitable trend.

What is fast charging?

Fast charging is a fast charging technology that can make the mobile phone fully charged in a short time. From the energy E = ITU, it can be seen that under the premise of a certain battery capacity, voltage and current are the key factors determining the charging time. There are three different forms of fast charging:

(1) Keep the voltage constant and increase the current;

(2) Keep the current constant and increase the voltage;

(3) Increase the voltage and current at the same time.

The essence of fast charging technology is to improve the charging power, and the most direct factors affecting the charging power are current and voltage. All of you who have taken physics class should know that P (power) = I (current) x U (voltage). Therefore, to improve the charging power, it is most direct to increase the current and voltage!

USB PD should unify the fast charging standard

During the Spring Festival of the year of the rooster, usb-if released an important update of USB PD 3.0, officially launched PPS (programmable power supply) aimed at unifying the technical specification of fast charging, successfully incorporated Qualcomm's QC 4.0, and reached a consensus with Theil Laboratory of the Ministry of industry and information technology of China, which is expected to be unified with the national standard. And Google also stressed in the latest Android 7.0 OEM specification that the fast charging technology must support USB PD. So far, the surging dispute over fast charging standards in 2016 has come to an end, and will enter the road of unified standards and rapid development in 2017.

As soon as this message came out, it basically charged the USB PD with a double insurance from the hardware and software levels. Firstly, PPS will not allow the USB interface to adjust the voltage through the non USB PD protocol, which basically kills 90% of the third-party fast charging standards, because most fast charging is carried out through collaborative adjustment of current and voltage, because the most appropriate charging voltage and current are different at different power stages, In order to achieve the highest charging efficiency and safety, it is necessary to continuously adjust the charging current and voltage. All charging is basically carried out through USB interface. If USB PD is not supported in the future, voltage adjustment cannot be carried out, so these fast charging have to add support for USB PD in their own standards.

There has been an ultimatum on the hardware, and Google's regulations on the software side are also very tough. So it seems that the good days of each manufacturer's own fast charging standards may come to an end. Many fast charging standards, including QC 4.0, will be incorporated, and USB PD will dominate the world. In fact, Qualcomm's latest QC 4.0 has used the USB PD protocol and become a branch of USB PD.

This is undoubtedly a good thing for the user experience. At present, a variety of fast charging standard IC chips are self-developed. Changing the charging head or even the data cable will lead to the failure of the fast charging function, which is obviously what we don't want to see. If the USB PD standard is used in the future, the fast charging chargers and data cables of different brands will be common, Users don't need to tie the original charger to themselves. Even next, all charging treasure may support the USB PD fast charging standard.

Current common fast charging schemes

Although the fast charging technology on the market seems to be classified and has many factions, in fact, in the final analysis, it is the two ways of increasing voltage and current. At present, the popular fast charging scheme in the market is the classification of high voltage and low current, low voltage and high current. Whether it is high voltage or high current, it ultimately depends on increasing power to improve the charging speed. Below, we will simply list these two main methods for you.

Qualcomm quick charge

Qualcomm quick charge is a typical solution with high voltage and low current. At present, Qualcomm fast charge technology has unknowingly come to the fourth generation of quick charge 4. From the initial QC 1.0 only supports the charging power of up to 5V / 2a to QC 2.0 can be compatible with 5V / 9V / 12V / 20V charging voltage and reach the maximum 3A charging current level. Quick charge 3.0 is an improvement based on QC 2.0. It takes 200mV increment as the first gear and supports dynamic regulation of working voltage from 3.6V to 20V. In this way, mobile phone manufacturers can adjust the optimal voltage according to the needs of their products, so as to achieve the expected current and improve the charging efficiency of mobile phones.

The latest generation of Qualcomm fast charge technology quick charge 4 has been determined to be supported on the next generation flagship chip Xiaolong 835 processor. It is expected that the commercial terminal equipped with Xiaolong 835 will be shipped in the first half of 2017. It is reported that the upgraded version of QC 4.0 can enjoy a charging speed increase of up to 20% compared with the previous generation of QC 3.0 through the parallel charging technology dual charge of Qualcomm technologies. In addition to improving the charging speed, QC 4.0 also realizes shorter charging time and higher efficiency, which can protect batteries, systems, cables and connectors while measuring voltage, current and temperature more accurately. On the one hand, the charging speed is improved, and on the other hand, the battery, charger and other equipment are protected.

Oppo super flash charge

Next, let's take a look at oppo vooc flash charging technology with low voltage and high current standard. Vooc chooses to keep the voltage unchanged and improve the charging speed by increasing the current. Looking back on the past two years of oppo vooc flash charging, it was first born in 2014, and then launched vooc Mini in October of the same year. In 15 years, the number of users has exceeded 10 million, which has been highly recognized by people inside and outside the industry. At the beginning of this year, oppo launched super flash charging technology, and the charging speed should be ahead of oppo's vooc flash charging.

Before understanding the super flash charging technology, first get familiar with the three stages of mobile phone battery charging, namely constant current precharge, high current constant current charging and constant voltage charging. When the mobile phone is at a low battery level, the voltage will decrease accordingly. At this time, the charger will charge the battery with a lower current. When the voltage of the battery is higher than the predetermined value, it will adopt constant current charging.

Oppo's latest Flash charging technology makes use of this working principle to strictly regulate the current. The advantage is that it avoids the way of boosting and increasing power, so it will reduce a lot in line loss, and effectively curb the phenomenon of mobile phone heating. After experiencing the huge size of the first generation vooc fast charging charger and the hidden danger that the charging line interface will break, we have finally presented a fast charging technology that takes into account the three aspects of fast charging, portability and security. However, this technology is only suitable for oppo products, and the compatibility is not enough.

MTP pump express plus fast charging technology

In addition to the two prominent fast charging technologies of Qualcomm and oppo, the principle of MediaTek MTP pump express plus fast charging technology is similar to that of Qualcomm quick charge, which ensures a constant current and achieves greater charging power by increasing the voltage from the charger to the USB port of the mobile phone.

In the past two years, pumpexpress technology began to emerge. The built-in PMIC power management integrated circuit allows the charger to determine the initial voltage required for charging according to the current. The PMIC sends the pulse current command to the charger through the USB VBUS, and then adjusts the output voltage according to this command.

Pump express 3.0 claims to be able to fully charge the smartphone with 70% power in 20 minutes, while reducing power consumption by 50% compared with pumpexpress plus, indirectly reducing heat generation. Compared with the increment of 200mV in QC 3.0, the voltage fine-tuning amplitude of pumpexpress 3.0 is only 10mV, and the theoretical maximum charging current can be 5A.

In addition, dash flash charging such as one plus is also similar to oppo's vooc flash charging technology, and the original charger can output 5V / 4A power; For another example, Meizu's mcharge 3.0 is based on MediaTek platform, so mcharge fast charging technology basically relies on pump express launched by MTK.

The Fast Charging Standard Should Be Unified. What Are the Common Schemes in the Market? 1

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